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                    你每天買買買的時候交了多少隱形的稅?(雙語)

                    2019-07-10 14:10

                    來源:滬江

                    作者:

                      Taxes are obviously necessary in order for a society to provide public goods and services to its citizens. Unfortunately, taxes also impose costs on citizens both directly (because if an individual gives money to the government, she doesn't have the money any longer) and indirectly (because taxes introduce inefficiency or deadweight loss) into markets.

                      為了社會能夠向公民提供公共產品和服務,稅收顯然是必要的。不幸的是,稅收也直接(因為如果一個人把錢給政府,她就不再擁有這筆錢了)或間接(因為稅收導致低效率或無謂的損失)地強制公民將資本投入市場。

                      Because the inefficiency that taxes introduce grows more than proportional to the amount of a tax, it makes sense for the government to structure taxes so that a lot of markets get taxed a little bit rather than so that a few markets get taxed a lot.

                      因為稅收帶來的低效率增長超過了稅收的比例,所以政府要合理地安排稅收結構,在多個市場少量征稅,而不是在少數市場大量征稅。

                      Therefore, a number of different taxes exist, and they can be categorized in a number of ways. Let's take a look at some of the common tax breakdowns.

                      因此,存在許多不同的稅種,它們可以按照多種方式進行分類。讓我們來看看一些常見的稅收細目。

                      Income Taxes

                      所得稅

                      An income tax, not surprisingly, is a tax on the money that an individual or household makes.

                      毫無疑問,所得稅是對個人或家庭的收入征稅。

                      This income can either come from labor income such as wages, salaries, and bonuses or from investment income such as interest, dividends, and capital gains. Income taxes are generally stated as a percentage of income, and this percentage can vary as the amount of a household's income varies.

                      這種收入既可以來自勞動所得,如工資、薪水和獎金,也可以來自投資收益,如利息、股利和資本收益。所得稅通常以收入的百分比表示,這個百分比可以隨著家庭收入的變化而變化。

                      Consumption Taxes

                      消費稅

                      Consumption taxes, on the other hand, are levied when an individual or household buys stuff.

                      另一方面,消費稅是在個人或家庭在購買貨物時征收的。

                      In the U.S., the most common consumption tax is a sales tax, which is levied as a percentage of the price of most items that are sold to consumers.

                      在美國,最常見的消費稅是銷售稅(營業稅),它是按銷售給消費者的大多數商品價格的百分比征收的。

                      In China, the sales tax is replaced by the quite similar value-added tax. (The main difference between a sales tax and a value-added tax is that the latter is levied at each stage of production and is thus levied on both businesses and households.)

                      在中國,銷售稅被相當類似的增值稅所取代。(銷售稅和增值稅的主要區別在于,增值稅是在生產的每個階段都要征收的,因此對企業和家庭都征收。)

                      Consumption taxes can also take the form of excise or luxury taxes, which are taxes on specific items (cars, alcohol, etc.) at rates that may differ from the overall sales tax rate. Many e conomists feel that consumption taxes are more efficient than income taxes in fostering economic growth.

                      營業稅也可以采取消費稅或奢侈品稅的形式,這是針對特定項目(汽車、酒精等)的稅收,稅率可能與總體銷售稅不同。許多經濟學家認為,在促進經濟增長方面,消費稅比所得稅更有效。

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